Autumn leaf color is a phenomenon that affects the normally green leaves of many deciduous trees and shrubs by which they take on, during a few weeks in the autumn season, various shades of red, yellow, purple, black, orange, pink, magenta, blue and brown. The phenomenon is commonly called autumn colors or autumn foliage in British English and fall colors, fall foliage or simply foliage in American English.
In some areas of Canada and the United States, “leaf peeping” tourism is a major contribution to economic activity. This tourist activity occurs between the beginning of color changes and the onset of leaf fall, usually around September and October in the Northern Hemisphere and April to May in the Southern Hemisphere.
trillion $ rain
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. It provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation.
The major cause of rain production is moisture moving along three-dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts known as weather fronts. If enough moisture and upward motion is present, precipitation falls from convective clouds (those with strong upward vertical motion) such as cumulonimbus (thunder clouds) which can organize into narrow rain bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation which forces moist air to condense and fall out as rainfall along the sides of mountains. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by downslope flow which causes heating and drying of the air mass. The movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
The urban heat island effect leads to increased rainfall, both in amounts and intensity, downwind of cities. Global warming is also causing changes in the precipitation pattern globally, including wetter conditions across eastern North America and drier conditions in the tropics. Antarctica is the driest continent. The globally averaged annual precipitation over land is 715 mm (28.1 in), but over the whole Earth it is much higher at 990 mm (39 in). Climate classification systems such as the Köppen classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Rainfall is measured using rain gauges. Rainfall amounts can be estimated by weather radar.
Rain is also known or suspected on other planets, where it may be composed of methane, neon, sulfuric acid, or even iron rather than water.
orb weaver spider
The orb weaver spider group is comprised of a large number of species thus making it difficult to distinguish them from other spider groups and from each other. In fact, the Orb-weaver spider family, Araneidae, is one of the most variable in size and appearance of all spider families. However, the most observable appearance of orb weavers isn’t necessarily their appearance, but the appearance of the large webs they create. In general, orb weavers construct organized, circular grid webs that are similar in shape to webs depicted in Halloween decorations. More specifically, orb weaver webs are made of radial strands of silk that look like the spokes of a wheel with the spokes connected by numerous concentric circular silk strands. The web of the garden orb weaver spider is very large and can measure up to three feet in diameter. When observed in their natural habitats, orb weavers will usually be seen hanging head down in their web.
Like all other spiders, orb weavers have a cephalothorax (a fused-together head and thorax), abdomen, 8 legs and fang-like mouthparts called chelicera. Many orb weavers are brightly colored, have hairy or spiny legs and a relatively large abdomen that overlaps the back edge of the cephalothorax. Abdomens vary between species. Some orb-weaver spiders have spiny, smooth, or irregularly shaped abdomens. Most nocturnal orb weavers are usually brown or gray in color. Diurnal species exhibit bright colors of yellow or orange along with black markings.
BEHAVIOR, DIET AND HABITS
Orb weavers are typically nocturnal spiders and many species will build or do repair work on their webs at night. Some orb weaver spiders tear down and even consume much of the web’s silk as the morning begins to dawn. This interesting habit is performed in order take in moisture from dew that may have settled on the web and to prevent large animals such as birds from getting caught in the web.
Since orb weavers are not hunters or wanderers, they will sit in their web or perhaps move off their web and wait for prey to get tangled in their web. Should the spider move off the web, it will remain nearby and hidden in a protected site such as some rolled up leaves or on the branch of a plant. However, the spider remains aware of prey that may become trapped in the web by a trap line of silk that will vibrate and alert the spider if something enters the web. If a prey insect is trapped in the web, the trap line vibrates notifying the spider rush to the web, bite and paralyze the prey and wrap it in silk for later consumption. If something non-eatable is trapped, the spider will either just ignore it or remove it from the web and go back to its protected hiding place. Orb weavers are most often noticed by homeowners in the late summer and fall since the adult spiders have attained their largest size and have constructed the largest number of webs.
Small insects such as flies, moths, beetles, wasps and mosquitoes are examples of insects that make up the spider’s diet. Some of the larger orb weavers may also trap and eat small frogs and humming birds should they venture into the web. Orb weavers tend to inhabit locations where there is abundant prey and structures that can support their web. Typical habitats include areas around night-lights, tree branches, tall grass, weeds, fences, walls and bushes.
this was from our backyard in Paradise…
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars.